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Butler v. Denka Performance Elastomer LLC

United States District Court, E.D. Louisiana

March 13, 2019

JUANEA L. BUTLER
v.
DENKA PERFORMANCE ELASTOMER LLC, ET AL.

         SECTION "F"

          ORDER AND REASONS

          MARTIN L . C. FELDMAN UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE

         Before the Court are four motions to dismiss this case under Rule 12(b)(6) by the State of Louisiana through the Department of Environmental Quality, the State of Louisiana through the Department of Health, Denka Performance Elastomer LLC, and E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company. For the following reasons, the motions are GRANTED.

         Background

         This environmental tort litigation arises from the production of neoprene at the Pontchartrain Works Facility (“PWF”) in St. John the Baptist Parish. Neoprene production allegedly exposes those living in the vicinity of the PWF to concentrated levels of chloroprene well above the upper limit of acceptable risk, and may result in a risk of cancer more than 800 times the national average.

         Juanea L. Butler has lived in LaPlace, Louisiana since 1998. She sued the Louisiana Department of Health (“DOH”), the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (“DEQ”), Denka Performance Elastomer LLC (“Denka”), and E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company (“DuPont”) seeking class certification, damages, and injunctive relief in the form of abatement of chloroprene releases from her industrial neighbor, the PWF. These facts are drawn from the allegations advanced in her Class Action Petition for Damages, originally filed on June 5, 2018 in the 40th Judicial District Court for St. John the Baptist Parish.[1]

         Effective November 1, 2015, DuPont sold the PWF to Denka, but DuPont retained ownership of the land underlying the facility. In December 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) released a screening-level National Air Toxics Assessment (“NATA”), and classified chloroprene as a likely human carcinogen. EPA's NATA evaluation suggested an acceptable risk exposure threshold for chloroprene: 0.2 µg/m³; that is, chloroprene emissions should stay below .2 micrograms per cubic meter[2] to comply with the limit of acceptable risk threshold (which is a risk of 100 in one million people).

         The EPA held its first Parish community meeting to discuss the potential chloroprene emission issues on July 7, 2016. At that meeting, a DOH representative advised that children should not breathe chloroprene. In August of 2016, Denka began 24-hour air sampling every six days. Samples collected at five sampling sites are and continue to exceed the 0.2 µg/m³ threshold. According to Denka's own sampling numbers for chloroprene concentrations, the average chloroprene concentration across all sampling sites from August 2016 to March 2017 has ranged from 4.08 µg/m³ to 6.65 µg/m³.

         The EPA has noted that, in addition to the high risk of cancer from exposure to chloroprene, symptoms include

headache, irritability, dizziness, insomnia, fatigue, respiratory irritation, cardiac palpitations, chest pains, nausea, gastrointestinal disorders, dermatitis, temporary hair loss, conjunctivitis, and corneal necrosis.
The EPA has further detailed that
acute exposure may: damage the liver, kidneys, and lungs; affect the circulatory system and immune system; depress the central nervous system; irritate the skin and mucous membranes; and cause dermatitis and respiratory difficulties in humans.

         On October 7, 2016, Denka submitted modeling results for chloroprene concentrations surrounding the PWF to the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality (“DEQ”) for the period of 2011 through 2015, showing concentrations well above the 0.2 µg/m³ threshold. At a meeting on December 8, 2016, DEQ Secretary Chuck Brown dismissed those expressing concern about the chloroprene concentrations as “fearmongerers” and said “forget about 0.2[µg/m³].”

         The EPA's National Enforcement Investigation Center (“NEIC”) conducted a Clean Air Act (“CAA”) inspection of the Pontchartrain Works facility in June 2016. A copy of the redacted inspection report from the EPA's CAA inspection was publicized on April 3, 2017. The NEIC inspection report revealed various areas of non-compliance by both DuPont and Denka in their operation of the facility, including failure to adhere to monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements for the chloroprene vent condenser; failure to replace leaking valves; failure to include appropriate emissions factors in air permit application materials; and failure to institute appropriate emissions controls for the chloroprene Group I storage tank.

         In her original and amended class action petition, Ms. Butler alleges that DuPont and Denka have and continue to emit chloroprene at levels resulting in concentrations exceeding the upper limit of acceptable risk. The plaintiff further alleges that DEQ and DOH failed to warn the plaintiff and her community about chloroprene exposure. She alleges that:

Due to the Plaintiff's exposure to the chloroprene emissions, she has experienced symptoms attributable to exposure of said chemical. Since April 2012 until current date, the Plaintiff has continually sought medical attention for the following conditions: acute bronchitis; coughing; throat irritation; redness and swelling; nasal blockage, congestion, and sneezing; sinusitis and nasal polyps; exacerbation of preexisting asthma; shortness of breath; wheezing; rhinosinusitis; thyroid enlargement; cardiac problems; nausea; vomiting; headaches; fatigue; epistaxis (nose bleeds); anxiety; depression; insomnia; and temporary hair loss.

         Seemingly at random, the plaintiff invokes as causes of action general Louisiana state constitutional provisions. She seeks injunctive relief in the form of abatement of chloroprene releases to “comply” with the EPA's suggested 0.2 µg/m³ threshold; damages for deprivation of enjoyment of life; damages for medical expenses; damages for loss of wages; damages for pain and suffering; punitive damages; and additional damages including medical monitoring to the extent personal injury claims become mature.

         Denka and DuPont jointly removed the lawsuit, invoking this Court's diversity jurisdiction under the Class Action Fairness Act (“CAFA”), 28 U.S.C. § 1332(d). The Court denied the plaintiff's motion to remand. See Order and Reasons dtd. 1/3/19 (denying motion to remand); see Order and Reasons dtd. 2/20/19 (denying motion to reconsider). DuPont, Denka, DEQ, and DOH now move to dismiss the plaintiff's claims.

         I. Legal Standard

         Rule 12(b)(6) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure allows for the dismissal of a complaint for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. Such motions are rarely granted because they are viewed with disfavor. See Lowrey v. Tex. A & M Univ. Sys., 117 F.3d 242, 247 (5th Cir. 1997) (quoting Kaiser Aluminum & Chem. Sales, Inc. v. Avondale Shipyards, Inc., 677 F.2d 1045, 1050 (5th Cir. 1982)).

         A pleading must contain a "short and plain statement of the claim showing that the pleader is entitled to relief." Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662, 678-79 (2009)(citing Fed.R.Civ.P. 8). "[T]he pleading standard Rule 8 announces does not require 'detailed factual allegations,' but it demands more than an unadorned, the-defendant-unlawfully-harmed-me accusation." Id. at 678 (citing Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 555 (2007)).

         In considering a motion to dismiss under Rule 12(b)(6), the Court “accept[s] all well-pleaded facts as true and view[s] all facts in the light most favorable to the plaintiff.” See Thompson v. City of Waco, Texas, 764 F.3d 500, 502 (5th Cir. 2014) (citing Doe ex rel. Magee v. Covington Cnty. Sch. Dist. ex rel. Keys, 675 F.3d 849, 854 (5th Cir. 2012)(en banc)). The Court will not accept conclusory allegations in the complaint as true. Id. at 502-03 (citing Iqbal, 556 U.S. at 678).

         To survive dismissal, “a complaint must contain sufficient factual matter, accepted as true, to state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face.” Gonzalez v. Kay, 577 F.3d 600, 603 (5th Cir. 2009)(quoting Iqbal, 556 U.S. at 678)(internal quotation marks omitted). “Factual allegations must be enough to raise a right to relief above the speculative level, on the assumption that all the allegations in the complaint are true (even if doubtful in fact).” Twombly, 550 U.S. at 555 (citations and footnote omitted). “A claim has facial plausibility when the plaintiff pleads factual content that allows the court to draw the reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for the misconduct alleged.” Iqbal, 556 U.S. at 678 (“The plausibility standard is not akin to a ‘probability requirement,' but it asks for more than a sheer possibility that a defendant has acted unlawfully.”). This is a “context-specific task that requires the reviewing court to draw on its judicial experience and common sense.” Id. at 679. “Where a complaint pleads facts that are merely consistent with a defendant's liability, it stops short of the line between possibility and plausibility of entitlement to relief.” Id. at 678 (internal quotations omitted) (citing Twombly, 550 U.S. at 557). “[A] plaintiff's obligation to provide the ‘grounds' of his ‘entitle[ment] to relief'”, thus, “requires more than labels and conclusions, and a formulaic recitation of the elements of a cause of action will not do.” Twombly, 550 U.S. at 555 (alteration in original) (citation omitted).

         II.

         A.

         Under Louisiana Civil Code article 3492, “[d]elictual actions are subject to a liberative prescription of one year. This prescription runs from the day injury or damage is sustained.” When damages are not immediate, the action in damages is formed and begins to prescribe “only when the tortious act actually produces damage and not on the day the act was committed.” Tenorio v. Exxon Mobil Corp., 170 So.3d 269, 274 (La.App. 5 Cir. 2015). Thus, a plaintiff's injury has been sustained within the meaning of La. C.C. art. 3492, “only when it has manifested itself with sufficient certainty to support accrual of a cause of action.” Id. Here, on the face of the plaintiff's petition, prescription began ...


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