CERTIORARI TO THE COURT OF APPEALS OF NORTH CAROLINA.
Marshall, J., delivered the opinion of the Court, in which Burger, C. J., and Brennan, Blackmun, Rehnquist, and O'connor, JJ., joined. White, J., filed an opinion concurring in the judgment, in which Powell and Stevens, JJ., joined, post, p. 716.
JUSTICE MARSHALL delivered the opinion of the Court.
In this case, the North Carolina Court of Appeals held that an Indiana court was without jurisdiction to adjudicate the rights of various parties in a $100,000 deposit held in trust by certain North Carolina officials. Because it found that the Indiana court did not have jurisdiction, the North Carolina court refused to recognize the Indiana court's prior ruling that all claims to the deposit were compromised, settled, and dismissed by the final order entered by that court during a
rehabilitation proceeding. We granted certiorari to decide whether, by refusing to treat the prior Indiana court judgment as res judicata, the North Carolina court has violated the Full Faith and Credit Clause of the Constitution and its implementing federal statute. 451 U.S. 982 (1981). For the reasons stated below, we reverse the decision of the North Carolina Court of Appeals.
Petitioner Underwriters National Assurance Co. (Underwriters) is an Indiana stock insurance corporation specializing in life and disability insurance for certain high-income professional groups. In 1973 Underwriters was licensed to do business in 45 States, including North Carolina, and was administering over 50,000 policies. To qualify to do business in North Carolina, Underwriters was required to join respondent North Carolina Life and Accident and Health Insurance Guaranty Association (North Carolina Association), a state-created association of all foreign and domestic insurance companies operating in North Carolina. See Life and Accident and Health Insurance Guaranty Association Act, N. C. Gen. Stat. § 58-155.65 et seq. (1975) (Guaranty Act). Under the terms of the Guaranty Act, the North Carolina Association is ultimately responsible for fulfilling the policy obligations of any member that becomes insolvent or otherwise fails to honor its obligations to North Carolina policyholders. N. C. Gen. Stat. § 58-155.72(4) (Supp. 1981).
In June 1973, after determining that Underwriters' financial condition was questionable, the North Carolina Commissioner of Insurance informed Underwriters that it must post a $100,000 deposit "for the sole benefit of North Carolina policyholders," to continue to do business in that State. Shortly thereafter, Underwriters deposited with the State a $100,000 bond registered to the "Treasurer of the State of North Carolina in trust for the Underwriters National Assurance
Company and the State of North Carolina as their respective interests may appear under Article 20, Chapter 58-188.5 of the North Carolina General Statutes." See N. C. Gen. Stat. § 58-182 et seq. (1975) (Deposit Act).
The North Carolina Commissioner's fears about Underwriters' financial condition proved to be well founded. Approximately one year after Underwriters posted this bond, the Indiana Department of Insurance commenced rehabilitation proceedings against petitioner on the ground that its reserves were inadequate to meet its future policy obligations. By order dated August 5, 1974, the Superior Court for Marion County (Rehabilitation Court)*fn1 appointed the Indiana Commissioner of Insurance as Rehabilitator and directed him to "take possession of the business and assets of Underwriters . . . and conduct the business thereof and appoint such personnel as may be necessary to rehabilitate Underwriters." Notice of this action was sent to all state insurance commissioners, including respondent North Carolina Commissioner. The North Carolina Commissioner immediately informed the North Carolina Association that Underwriters was undergoing rehabilitation in Indiana, and that title to all assets of Underwriters had been transferred to the Indiana Rehabilitator.
Shortly after entering the order of rehabilitation, the Rehabilitation Court enjoined the commencement or prosecution of any suit against Underwriters or the Rehabilitator. This injunction stayed several policyholder actions that had been filed against Underwriters, and required that any person who desired to institute or to prosecute any such action
join the Indiana rehabilitation proceeding.*fn2 The plaintiffs in the stayed actions were subsequently given permission to intervene in the rehabilitation proceeding. In October 1975, the Rehabilitation Court certified a class consisting of all past and present policyholders, and appointed intervening plaintiffs from the stayed actions as class representatives.*fn3
The Rehabilitation Court sent notice of the rehabilitation proceeding to all policyholders, informing them that the class had been certified, and that all members not requesting exclusion would be bound by the judgment of the Rehabilitation Court. The notice concluded by stating that "[the] entire court file" was available to any class member.*fn4
Over the next two and one-half years, the Rehabilitation Court supervised the efforts of the Rehabilitator and other interested parties to return Underwriters to a sound financial footing. After extensive negotiations between Underwriters, the class representatives, and other interested parties, the Rehabilitator submitted a Proposed Plan to the Rehabilitation Court in April 1976. In order to preserve the financial
health of the company and to provide continuing coverage for policyholders, the Rehabilitator proposed that the Rehabilitation Court reform the policies to require increased premiums and reduced benefits.*fn5 Of particular interest to this litigation, the Proposed Plan stated that Underwriters "[will have] no liability to any guaranty association which itself has obligations to [Underwriters'] policyowners." Proposed Rehabilitation Plan, I(J), Exhibit Binder 79 (E. B.). Part X(C) of the Proposed Plan further provided:
"The guaranty associations in some states may have obligations to [Underwriters'] policyowners as a result of the [Underwriters] rehabilitation proceeding. Moreover, to the extent such guaranty associations do have obligations, there is a possibility that those guaranty associations may seek to recover from [Underwriters] sums paid to [Underwriters'] policyowners. The Rehabilitation Plan should resolve [Underwriters'] contingent liability to any guaranty association by determining that [Underwriters] has no further obligation or liability to any guaranty association." Id., at 89 (emphasis added).
By direction of the Rehabilitation Court, the Rehabilitator mailed a copy of this Proposed Plan to all interested parties, including all state guaranty associations and insurance commissioners. The Rehabilitator subsequently sent to the guaranty associations notice of a hearing to consider various rehabilitation plans, including that of the Rehabilitator.
This notice explicitly informed the guaranty associations that although eight associations, including the North Carolina Association, "may have obligations to . . . policyowners as a result of the [Underwriters] rehabilitation proceeding," no association had either intervened in the proceeding, or made suggestions for changes in the Plan. The notice directed that if a guaranty association desired to present any information or contentions relevant to the rehabilitation of Underwriters, it must intervene in the proceeding and present its arguments at the June 9, 1976, hearing. Unless the associations either intervened, or stated in writing that they had no obligations to policyowners and that they waived all claims against Underwriters and the Rehabilitator, a summons would issue to bring the associations before the Rehabilitation Court. Id., at 59-61.
On June 8, 1976, these eight guaranty associations, including the North Carolina Association, intervened in the Indiana rehabilitation proceeding. In their motion to intervene, the guaranty associations stated that Part X(C) of the Proposed Plan was "unacceptable," and that through negotiations, the associations and the Rehabilitator had agreed on a modification that would "protect the rights of the Guaranty Associations." In relevant part,*fn6 the guaranty associations proposed that Part X(C) be changed to read as follows:
"[Underwriters shall have] no further obligation or liability to any guaranty association other than the obligation to recognize as valid the assignment of the policyowner's rights to the guaranty association and to treat the guaranty association as it would have treated the policyowner; provided, however, if any guaranty association makes any payment to or on behalf of any policyowner which is not fully reimbursed pursuant to the foregoing
provisions, that association shall receive from [Underwriters] each year until fully reimbursed a portion of [Underwriters'] statutory net gain from operations after dividends to policyowners, federal income taxes and the payments to be made under Part XI equal to the annual premium in force for basic coverage in the state of that association on August 5, 1974, divided by the total annual premiums in force for basic coverage of [Underwriters] on August 5, 1974." Id., at 105 (emphasis added).
After a full hearing in which the North Carolina Association participated, the Rehabilitation Court tentatively approved the Proposed Plan, including the above modification. The court directed the Rehabilitator to send notice to all interested persons that on October 14, 1976, a final hearing would be held on the Plan and the settlement of all claims against Underwriters. The notice sent by the Rehabilitator to Underwriters, the North Carolina Commissioner of Insurance, and all other interested parties specified that "[the] Proposed Rehabilitation Plan provides in part XIII that upon [its] final approval . . . , all claims against [Underwriters] by policyowners or others are compromised and dismissed." At the request of the eight guaranty associations, the Rehabilitation Court subsequently approved a special mailing to policyholders in their respective States explaining that the guaranty associations were statutorily obligated under certain circumstances to continue to provide the benefits compromised by the Indiana court under the Rehabilitation Plan.
In November 1976, after holding final hearings in which the North Carolina Association participated, the Rehabilitation Court approved a Plan of Rehabilitation, which was, with respect to issues relevant here, identical to the Proposed Plan. In its order adopting this Plan, the Rehabilitation Court stated that it had ...